Beekeeping

Turkey food

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Feed for turkeys should be nutritious, high-quality, useful. Indeed, despite the fact that this bird is considered practically omnivorous, the activity of its growth, development, egg production, gaining muscle mass is directly dependent on feeding. It is with the problems of growth and weight gain that inexperienced breeders face who feed the bird with everything that it can, without making up for it a certain daily ration. The article will describe how to feed turkeys at home and what to avoid in the diet.

What kind of food can be given to turkeys?

The diet of a turkey in a private farm is usually quite diverse, which, of course, is good for the bird.

  • The basis of nutrition is always grain and peas. They are 70% meet the need for the body of a bird in protein.
  • Fresh greens, germinated grain, hay, straw, spruce (pine) needles, yeast are rich in vitamins (A, B, C, E, H) and trace elements. They not only enhance the immune system, but also affect egg production.

    Balanced turkey feeding rates

  • Cake and soy meal are an irreplaceable source of amino acids.
  • Meat and bone, fish and meat meal contain an abundance of protein, calcium, phosphorus. All these three components play an active role in growth, muscle mass gain, and skeletal formation.
  • Walnuts, vegetable oil, acorns - an unusual, but important addition to the daily feed for turkeys! The fat in their composition affects the quality of the meat. It becomes more tender, soft, juicy.

Separately, it is necessary to say about feed. Usually they are purchased at large plants, but if it is decided to feed the turkeys with compound feed, it is worth buying good mixes. Growth, development, activity, health, turkey egg production and many other points depend on the quality of the feed. Cheap analogues require a longer fattening, it is worth considering. Experts believe that it is advisable to buy a good, expensive mixture.

What not to give turkeys?

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There are a number of foods and feed mixtures that can not be fed to turkeys. They can lead to obesity, problems of growth, activation of diseases and even death of the entire population.

Plants that are contraindicated for turkeys

  • Compound feed for cattle contains urea and some other components that are considered dangerous for all species of birds, including turkeys, so when purchasing feed, you need to clarify for whom it was developed and to check the composition just in case.
  • Compound feed with growth stimulants and hormones can adversely affect the condition of the bird that uses it and spoil the taste, the quality of the meat produced from it.
  • Spoiled, sour food and mash for turkeys are strictly prohibited. They lead to digestive problems and even death.
  • For poults, fiber may be harmful in large quantities. So it is minimized in the diet.

How to make turkey food at home?

Making food for turkeys at home is not difficult. Given the high cost of feed, it is even profitable, only require compliance with very precise proportions, the quality of the components (products), as well as the time of the breeder.

Below is the recipe of feed per 1 adult turkey.

  • 150-250 g - grain dert (barley, corn, oats);
  • 100 g - boiled potatoes;
  • 70 g - millet and corn;
  • 50 g - meat, fish waste;
  • 50 g - carrots, pumpkin, swede;
  • 45 g wheat bran;
  • 10 g - crushed shell;
  • 2 g - salt.

Meat and fish waste can be excluded from this list by replacing them with 10 grams of meat and bone meal.

In winter, you can use the following recipe for feeding turkeys:

  • 68% - wheat and corn grain;
  • 13% - sunflower meal;
  • 5% - grass meal or shredded needles;
  • 4% yeast;
  • 3.5% - crushed shell;
  • 3% - meat or bone meal or fish meal;
  • 3% - chalk;
  • 0.5% is salt.

In this recipe, you can exclude chalk and crushed shell, if they are given in a separate bowl.

And finally - a recipe for turkey poults under the age of 1 month.

  • 30% corn flour;
  • 20% oats;
  • 20% wheat bran;
  • 15% - cottage cheese;
  • 10% - chopped greens or grass meal;
  • 2.5% - meat and bone meal;
  • 2% - crushed shell;
  • 0.5% is salt.

Again, the shell can not be added if it is given separately.

What are the norms of feeding turkeys?

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Feeding adult turkeys in winter is always stretched by 3 doses, and in summer it increases by 4-5 times. Turkeys are usually fed with wet mash 2 times a day (in the morning and in the afternoon). Prepare them immediately before serving, so they do not turn sour. As for dry grain, it is simply poured into a separate trough and replenish as it is eaten. In the evening, one hour before bedtime, whole grain is given (not ground), since it is digested for a long time, birds do not get hungry until the morning.

Types of turkey food

In the case of poor appetite (which is often observed in the heat), it is worth giving germinated grain in the evening, as well as mash of vegetables and root crops. This will allow you to replenish the rate of nutrients so that turkeys do not lose weight.

In the summer, the birds walk a lot, and therefore can themselves find green food. In winter, herbal meal is mixed in to feed the vitamins into the turkey feed, and are fed separately, like spruce and pine needles.

The norms of homemade food per head per day reaches 350-470 grams, depending on the season, type of cultivation, breed, and so on.

It is impossible to say for sure the exact norms of consumption of feed for turkey poults and turkeys, since different breeds in different climates and housing conditions feed in their own way. Below is a table of the average consumption of turkey feed for the entire period of growth.

Type of feedTurkey Age (day)Average Daily Consumption (g / head)The average consumption of feed during the fattening period (kg)The weight of the turkey at the end of fattening (kg)
Starter1-28 (female)1002,81,2
Starter1-28 (male)1503,81,8
Grower29-84 (female)28016,510-12
Grower29-84 (male)45020,715-17
Finisher85-200450-50080,024

What to feed turkey poults?

Poults from the first day of life and up to 1 month are fed 8 times a day. Initially, only boiled cereal from barley, corn, wheat, shredded carrots, boiled eggs, cottage cheese and greens are included in the feed for the young turkey. All these components need to be mixed or given separately, while it is extremely important that they be crushed heavily, otherwise the poults will gag.

Turkey-from-the-first-day-of-life-and-up-1-month-fed-8-times-a-day

From 4 days old, green onion feathers are beginning to be included in turkey feed. This is an excellent prevention of intestinal diseases. Food can begin to give in the form of wet mash. They are prepared mainly for dairy products (reverse, milk, whey). Be sure to in the diet should be green (dandelion, nettle, alfalfa, plantain), cottage cheese. An exemplary recipe of food for young individuals that can be made at home is suggested above.

Possible feeding errors

Feeding and selecting turkey food at home can be difficult even for experienced breeders. Below are recommendations on how to avoid some of the most common mistakes.

  • When switching from one type of turkey food to another, food is introduced gradually with a replacement of 25%, then in 50%, 75% and on the fourth day - 100%. Otherwise, the bird can hurt his stomach, start to eat poorly and the like.
  • Some breeders, wanting their birds to weigh a lot, begin to zealously overfeed them. However, this does not bode well. An abundance of food only leads to obesity.

    Feeding and selection of turkey feed at home

  • During the breeding period, when the breeder collects eggs for incubation, it is necessary to provide high-quality, fortified food. Therefore, a month before the intended "harvest" in the diet include yeast, roots, delicacies like walnuts and acorns, grains with vitamin B content, as well as sprouted grains. If this is not done, the fertility of the eggs will be low.
  • Buy for turkeys need only large feeders. Of the little ones, they are uncomfortable.
  • Do not clean the feeders once a week or a month! It is necessary to do this every day before or after serving food, when the bird has finished eating.
  • Not all turkey breeds can eat simple, homemade food. Sometimes, to achieve the desired results, it is worthwhile to give preference to purchased mixed fodder.

VIDEO - Turkeys. Conditions of detention. Stern

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