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The technology of growing winter wheat

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The technology of growing winter wheat is not very difficult, and, nevertheless, not all farmers manage to grow a good crop and get a rich harvest. Experience and skill come with time, but what do young farmers, for whom profit is important now, and not in a few years? Below is a detailed instruction where, when to plant winter wheat, how to sow and how to care for the crop.

Where to sow winter wheat?

Before you choose a variety or determine the technology of growing winter wheat or planting time, you need to find a suitable place for it.

Planting wheat in one place can be no more than once every 2 years.

  • Predecessors. In this regard, wheat is very demanding due to poorly developed and sensitive root system. Cultures of early maturity are suitable, which reduce soil contamination, reduce the chance of pests and diseases infecting the earth. These include pulses, corn for green fodder and silage, oats, buckwheat, early potatoes, and rapeseed. But after the barley to grow this culture is impossible.
  • Planting wheat in one place can be no more than once every 2 years.
  • The place is chosen sunny. If the field is large, then, one way or another, the wheat will be under the sun, but in the case of cultivation in a small area, this point is often forgotten.
  • Groundwater should be at a considerable depth, since the root system of the plant is weak and can not withstand the abundance of moisture and begin to rot.

Varieties of winter wheat

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Growing a variety worth picking up a local

The variety for cultivation is to pick a local, then you can get good shoots and yields. Foreign varieties will get used to the climate for a long time, the land, the unusual technology of growing wheat in winter, because in different countries it may differ.

The most common, well-known and fruitful varieties: "Mironovskaya 66", "Lyubava Odesskaya", "Ukrainka Poltavskaya", "Lada Odesskaya", "Lelya", "Kharkiv 105" and "Mironovskaya 65".

When to sow winter wheat?

The technology of growing winter wheat is very simple, but it is necessary to comply with all the terms and standards. This includes the time for sowing. The problem is that the timing may vary depending on the place of planting, climatic conditions, variety and the like.

The optimal time for sowing winter wheat September 15-20

The optimal time is September 15-20. It can be said, universal time, when you can plant any varieties in any climate - before the cold, planting material will have time to settle down and start growing. But It is worth noting that on impoverished land, the sowing period falls on the 15-17 numbers, and on fertile soils it can be sown later. The fact is that fertile land can accelerate the development of seeds and by the winter period they will simply outgrow and freeze.

By the onset of cold, winter days, winter wheat should develop about 2 months, and have 2-4 developed sprouts.

How to prepare the soil for the cultivation of winter wheat?

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Ideally, the soil should correspond to the correct density, structure, aeration, moisture, nutritional value for wheat. But this is ideally to fully comply with the technology of growing winter wheat. In fact, it is almost impossible to comply with all these criteria, so standard sowing should be carried out before sowing wheat.

First of all, the soil is cleared from weeds as much as possible. You can simultaneously treat it with substances from pests, but this is not necessary. The fact is that by the time of sowing they may reappear, and if not, the chemicals will affect the sowing material - in general, there will be more harm than good. But getting rid of weeds is necessary.

Preparing the soil for growing winter wheat

Good ground for winter wheat should have a pH of 6.5-7. Otherwise, there may be difficulties with the emergence and quality of the crop. Therefore, before fertilizing the land or after that, it is necessary to adjust the acidity.

Then, fertilizers and plant residues are embedded 8-10 cm deep into the ground. The technology of growing winter wheat on an industrial scale involves the use of mineral tukas of complex action, on small farms you can get by with humus with the addition of K2O (40-60 kg / ha), P2O5 (60-80 kg / ha) and N (30-50 kg / ha ). If it is not possible to add pure phosphate, nitrogen and potassium, you can replace them with double superphosphate, potassium chloride and ammonium nitrate. After that, the ground is leveled so that there is a flat layer for sowing. Breast more than 8 cm in diameter should not be, otherwise the development and growth of seed material will be delayed.

Winter wheat sowing technology

The technology of growing winter wheat

The technology of growing winter wheat, and in this case sowing, must be strictly observed if the farmer wants to get a really good harvest.

  • Sow winter wheat in rows with a row spacing of 15 cm.
  • The seeding rate is 400-500 / m. sq. with timely conduct of crops. If the work on the sowing of winter wheat has been deposited at a later date, the number of seeds should be increased by about 15% per square meter.
  • The seeds are buried by 3-5 cm. After sowing, you need to roll the seeds with earth using a special technique or tool, if the area is small. In the case of late sowing, the embedment depth is reduced by 1-1.5 cm to accelerate the growth of winter wheat.

How to care for crops?

Includes the technology of cultivation of winter wheat as well as care for the crop, and not just the selection of a place or sowing planting material.

Protection against pests and diseases needed in the spring

  • Top dressing is necessary necessarily, otherwise growth and productivity will decrease. Fertilizers before crops were described above. After the wheat has been sown, it needs 1-2 supplements with nitrogen fertilizers (40-80 kg / ha). The amount depends on the soil. Thus, 60-80 kg / ha are taken on sod-podzolic soil, and 40-60 kg / ha on black soil.
  • Protection from pests and diseases is needed in the spring, when they appear after hibernation. The treatment is carried out with complex biological or chemical substances from those pests and diseases that were previously observed on this earth.
  • It is also important to carry out work to remove weeds. In a small area, this is not a problem. But on a large field, only weed herbicides can help: “Alistair Grand”, “Bacara Forte”, “Verdict”, “Puma Gold”, “Puma Plus”, “Puma Super 100”, “Estet” and others.
  • Watering needs regular. The quantity and frequency depend on the type of land and the variety of winter wheat.

Harvest

Harvesting Winter Wheat

Harvesting is carried out after full ripening of grain and at a humidity of 15-17%. To do this, usually use a special technique - combine harvesters.

VIDEO - Features of the cultivation of winter wheat

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