Sunflower is an incredibly valuable crop. It produces not only vegetable oil or seeds, but also husks, meal and cake. The latter is an indispensable product in agriculture. Sunflower cake has a nutritional composition and is quickly digested with its consumption of agricultural animals. About the features, composition and use of sunflower cake can be found below in the article.
What is sunflower cake?
Sunflower cake is obtained by squeezing seed oil. In fact, these are residues of seeds that were pressed during the extraction of oil from them. Cake is made in one of three forms: granules, pressed plates, scattering. The quality of the cake as feed is determined by the type of sunflower seeds and the process of obtaining oil from them.
Interesting! In addition to agriculture, sunflower cake is used in fisheries. It is from here that his second name is Makuha.
Sunflower cake has a rich composition.
- 30-40% protein;
- up to 11% water;
- 7-15% crude fat;
- 6-7% mineral substances;
- 5-18% fiber;
- There are vitamins A, B, E. 1 kg of the product contains: up to 14 mg of pantothenic acid, 0.3 mg of carotene, up to 48 mg of nicotinic acid, 6-9 mg of riboflavin, 13 mg of thiamine.
There is a lot of protein and fat in oil cake, which makes it beneficial for agricultural animals. It has a high energy value and a low degree of oxidation, so this additive allows animals and birds to fill up more quickly, and it is beneficial for the breeder. A small amount of fiber can be explained by the fact that when grinding the seeds of sunflower, husk leaves by itself, and in fact it contains the most fiber.
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Sunflower cake is one of the most affordable and very useful components of the diet of animals and birds, so it is very popular in agriculture. What is its benefit?
Why cake is used in agriculture
- It has many useful substances necessary for both cattle and poultry, pigs, rabbits;
- It has a positive effect on the egg production of birds (ducks, chickens, geese, turkeys);
- Increases the reproductive function of animals and birds;
- Normalizes the body's metabolic processes;
- Sunflower oilcake is one of the factors of rapid growth of young animals;
- Reduces the risk of disease, even during epidemics.
Interesting! Oddly enough, the cake is much more useful than fresh sunflower seeds.
Norms of sunflower meal in the diet
Depending on the type of living creatures, sunflower cake is given in a specific dosage. However, cake is a mandatory additive of almost any feed. So before including it in the diet of a bird or animal, you need to check the composition of the feed, if any. Below is the concentration of meal in the daily diet for certain animals and birds.
The concentration of meal in the daily diet for certain animals and birds
- Chickens give up to 15%, and adult chickens - up to 20%. In the composition of feed for adult chickens cake until 8%;
- In the diet of geese of adolescence include up to 17% of sunflower cake from the daily amount of food;
- Ducks for laying hens need up to 8% in the diet. The amount of supplement for young stock is 3-7%;
- For a fattening turkey, 8-15% of the supplement will be enough in the diet, and for young stock, the amount will be reduced to 5-7%;
- For young calves per day, up to 1.5 kg of sunflower cake is mixed into the diet (20% of the total feed). An adult cow or bull needs up to 25% of the meal every day. Dairy cows are given approximately 4 kg of cake per day. Such a large number is due to the fact that the cow is weakened during lactation. The abundance of oil cake improves the quality of milk, has a positive effect on the health of the cow (increases the body's defenses).
Interesting! If cow's milk is used for making butter, you must give the cow no more than 2.5 kg of sunflower cake a day! If given according to the standards - 4 kg, then the oil will be too soft.
- The daily dose for a growing pig is 200-300 g. For a pregnant and nursing female, 400-600 g of oilcake per head. For fattening pigs give from 0.5 to 1 kg of cake daily;
- In the feed of horses, cake is 20%. On a day, a working stallion needs up to 3 kg of supplement;
- Rabbits from 35 to 160 days give 10-13% of the additive from the total daily allowance of feed;
- The daily rate of meal for an adult goat is 0.3-0.5 kg, and for the young - 0.2-0.3 kg;
- A sheep should consume per day an average of 10% sunflower cake, for the normal functioning of its body and the rapid growth of wool.
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The cake, despite its advantage, has one major drawback - it can be very difficult to store it if there is no suitable room and the ability to adjust humidity and temperature. In winter, the cake quickly deteriorates, and spoiled, it is no good for anything.
Proper storage of cake
To sunflower cake does not spoil, it is necessary to provide him with appropriate storage conditions.
- Before storage, it is heated in winter to +35 degrees Celsius, and in summer - 5 degrees above ambient temperature;
- Store the cake in bags stacked in piles or in bulk. In the latter case, it is necessary from time to time to mix (pour);
- Humidity should not exceed 12%. If the humidity is higher, it will rot, mold, the taste will become bitter;
- In the room where the cake is stored, there must be an established ventilation system;
- Raw materials should not be near heat or lie in direct sunlight.
Dangerous properties of the cake
Using sunflower cake as an additive in the diet of agricultural poultry, it is worth remembering that, like any other product, it can be harmful, if not comply with the rules.
Cake overdose will adversely affect the health of the animal
If you give plenty of cake, a product obtained from an animal or bird (meat, lard, eggs, milk) may have a bad taste or smell. In addition, overdose will adversely affect the health of the animal.
Interesting! Before you feed the living creatures meal, it must be crushed in a crusher or steamed. Since a large piece of a bird or animals can choke.
If the breeder feeds poor (sour, sour, moldy) sunflower cake, it can also have a bad effect on the health of the animal. So the benefits of this product can not be overestimated, but you need to use it, like any other product, correctly.