Turkish carnation


Turkish carnation is very popular. On kitchen gardens, in a garden, on personal plots - it meets everywhere both in the countries with a warm climate, and with cool. Small flowers of the plant attract a lot of attention to themselves, especially since breeders do not get tired to display new varieties with interesting colors. About the features of the plant, its cultivation and varieties will be discussed later in the article.

Turkish Carnation Description

Turkish carnation

Turkish carnation began to be cultivated from the XIV century. The first written mentions of her come across in the recordings of the botanist and naturalist John Gerard - the English botanist. Other plant names are: "Sweet William", "Bearded Carnation". Turkish carnation in its natural environment is a perennial, but in the middle lane with a cool climate it is always grown as a two-year-old.

The stem has a height of 20-60 cm. The shoots are erect, hard, do not break under the weight of leaves and buds. The leaves are elongated, green or silver-green color.

Inflorescences are corymbose, consist of individual flowers of various colors. In their natural habitat, buds are usually red and white, and cultural species can be of almost any color from white to purple. The diameter of one blooming flower - 2-3 cm, and the entire inflorescence - 10-15 cm. Flower shape: double, semi-double. Blossoming flowers thin out a delicate, pleasant aroma and are excellent honey plants - they are often used to attract bees to the site. After flowering a fruit box appears with black seeds.

Interesting! Turkish carnation flowers are edible and have a pleasant, sweetish taste. Often they are used in traditional medicine.

In their natural habitat, Turkish carnation is most often found in the Middle East (Turkey, from which the name originated), in southern Europe and in northeast China. Cultivated species are grown all over the world, but they are especially in demand in regions with a temperate climate.

Types and varieties of Turkish carnation

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Types and varieties of Turkish carnation

This flower belongs to the genus of carnations of the family of carnations. There are a lot of varieties of this plant. Listed below are some of them.

  • "Wee Willie"grows up to 15 cm in height. Flowers are predominantly two-colored, white-pink, collected in very dense inflorescences, which look like terry hats.
  • "Holborn glory"- tall variety (60 cm in height). Bushes are upright, powerful. Stems and leaves are green. Flowers are simple, up to 2 cm in diameter, are collected in inflorescences with a diameter of up to 12 cm. Petals burgundy with snow-white fringe along the edge and eye.
  • "Dynasty Orchids"- the terry look of a carnation is Turkish up to 3 cm high. The buds can be cream, red or pink.
  • "Green Trick"- Japanese species. Shoots high. At the top of some pagons are bright green fluffy bracts like a ball. This is the only, but prominent decoration of the plant - there are no flowers at all.
Interesting! "Turkish Carnation" is the Russian name for a flower, in England it is called "Sweet William". According to one version, the flower is named in honor of William Augustus - Duke of Cumberland, the commander of the XVIII century, and on the other - in honor of William Shakespeare. Although there are other variants of the origin of the English name of the culture.
  • "Nigricans"- a variety that grows within 40-50 cm in height. Erect shrub with resistant stems. The leaves and stems are green, but have burgundy veins. The flowers are purple, and at the base of the petals are crimson, velvet, gathered in thick inflorescences with a diameter of 10 cm.
  • "Festival"- a variety of carnation Turkish with small stems up to 25 cm. It has many colors of flowers: white-pink (two-color), light pink, cream, salmon, dark cherry, etc.

Breeding methods of Turkish carnation

Breeding methods of Turkish carnation

It is very simple to propagate a Turkish carnation, for this purpose seeds or cuttings are used.

  1. Seed method

Seeds of Turkish carnation can be purchased at a specialty store, purchased at the market or from friends. If the culture grows on the site, they are simply collected from the flower after flowering. Sowing time may occur in the spring or at the end of summer (early autumn).

Since the seeds germinate well, they are usually never grown for seedlings and immediately sown in a greenhouse or flowerbed. Spring sowing begins when it becomes warm outside and the threat of recurrent frosts is over (end of May). If the spring did not have time, you can do it in late August or early September.

Interesting! If you sow the seeds in the beginning of spring for seedlings, and in May you transplant the shoots to a permanent place, most likely, the Turkish carnation will give flowers in the first year of growth. However, there are no guarantees.

Sowing is carried out immediately to a permanent place, so as not to introduce shoots into stress transplants. All weeds are removed on the plot, the ground is loosened, leveled, and watered. Now you need to scatter the seeds on the surface of the earth so that between them was 3-5 cm of free space, and sprinkle on top of clean, dry soil. If the street is not very warm at night, you can cover the bed with crops with agrofibre or film, but this is not necessary.

  1. The second method of reproduction - layering, cuttings

This method is used less frequently, but it is also effective. At the end of the summer, long shoots can be tilted to the ground and stapled to prevent the pagon from straightening, and then fall asleep with the earth in one place. After a while, it will take root and sprout.

Cutting is used if there is a good mother plant. A strong, straight shoot is separated and treated with a root. After that, you need to land on a new place and wait a few days. If the soil is good and the plant is healthy, then it will quickly start growing - it will give young leaves.

Place and soil for planting

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Soil for planting carnations

Turkish carnation belongs to unpretentious plants that are very easy to grow. It is picky in terms of soil and grows almost anywhere. And yet, this flower has some preferences.

  • It is desirable to grow a flower of a Turkish carnation on a sunny plot, as its homeland are countries with a hot climate. The penumbra will also work in extreme cases, but in the shadows it will not give good flowering.
  • Earth can be almost any. The plant shows active growth and build-up of green mass on fertile land with an abundance of humus. On poor soil with a high percentage of sand and stones, the culture also grows rapidly and produces large buds with bright colors.
  • Drainage should be good. In the homeland of the plant, the land is mostly sandy or rocky, so there is never a problem with water drainage, but if you plant a crop in clayey soil, you should make a good drainage layer before planting.
  • Suitable acidity in the range of 7.0-7.5 pH is only slightly alkaline soil.

How to care for Turkish carnation?

Turkish carnation care

Caring for Turkish carnation begins from the moment of sowing, good, it takes not much time.

  • After sprouting has appeared, the Turkish carnation is usually thinned, as in the thickened planting it does not give large, luxuriant inflorescences.
  • Watering is needed twice a week, and if the summer is very hot, then 3 times a week. But it is important to ensure that the soil is not too wet all the time, as the plant has a tendency to rotting the roots.
  • Spraying is not carried out at all! All watering is done as far as possible under the root. After all, drops that fall on the pagons or leaves, usually leave ugly, brown spots.
  • Care in the home and involves timely loosening of the earth, as well as the removal of weeds.
Important! The small shoots of the Turkish carnation are weak, thin and resemble weeds, so you should be careful when weeding, so as not to tear them out along with weeds.
  • Feeding is optional. The plant receives all necessary useful substances from water and the earth. And only in rare cases, if the culture does not grow, the leaves dry, and there is no flowering, you can feed the flower with complex floral fertilizers.
  • After flowering, bloomed buds need to be cut, if no seeds are needed. If there is a desire to get seeds, you need to leave the flowers to dry, in their place the seed boll will ripen and fall to the ground itself - you don’t even need to sow it. But if you want to sow the seeds in another place, you should collect the seed boxes as soon as they mature, and then dry and set aside in a dark place until spring.
  • Shelter for the winter is required only in the northern regions, where there are very cold winters. For shelter you can use agrofibre, spruce, peat, fallen leaves and other types of mulch.

Problems with growing Turkish carnation

Problems in growing carnations creates aphid

Even high-quality care at home for the Turkish carnation, does not guarantee that the cultivation of the culture will not have problems. The plant can be chosen by pests, diseases, it can suffer due to improper care and a number of other reasons.

  • In winter, in the thickets of Turkish carnations, field mice and other similar rodents often lodge. In order to avoid the appearance of pests, it is worth laying out for the winter around the plant of a branch of thuja, walnut, elderberry or garlic heads. With their smell, they will scare away mice and similar pests. An alternative may be the black root - it is simply planted near the Turkish carnation.
  • Of the pests of the Turkish carnation, the spider mite is the most threatened. You can cope with it by spraying the preparations "Fitoverm" or "Vermitek".
  • Aphid also often affects Turkish carnation. If you do not fight it at an early stage, in a short time it can spread over long distances and destroy many cultivated plants. For the destruction of the pest is best to use systemic insecticides like "Aktara", "Tanrek" or "Aktellik".
  • Of the diseases, the plant is most vulnerable to fusarium. This fungus infects the roots, shoots and as a result, the culture completely rot. Prevention is moderate watering, thinning, planting resistant varieties. But if the flower is sick, it must be torn out and burned, since this problem is usually not treated.

Turkish carnation can be an amazing decoration of any flower bed or garden. For this, she has all the qualities, because she fits into different types of landscape designs, has flowers that are rich in color and has a pleasant aroma. For these and many other qualities her love growers around the world.