Wine grapes (technical varieties) are grown for further processing and preparation of wine. At various times this drink was made using one or another method, but for the production, it was often the grapes used. This article presents the most famous wine species and their description.
Features technical grapes
Grapes used for making wine, has its own, unique qualities that distinguish it from many other species.
- The amount of sugars in the composition of berries is about 20% or more.
- The vine has resistance to low temperatures, most diseases and pest attacks.
The grapes used for making wine have their own unique qualities.Interesting! Technical varieties have a denser and thicker skin than canteens. It is the rind of the grape that gives the wine valuable tannins.
- The concentration of juice in the berries is high and makes up 80-90% of the total mass.
- The mass of berries on the bunch is much greater than the mass of the comb (bunch skeleton). If the comb is greater in weight than the weight of the berries, the taste of the final wine may be bad.
- The berries are small, significantly smaller than the berries of table grapes.
White grape wine varietiesRead also these articles.
- Victor grape variety
- Potato cultivar Zekura
- Przewalski's horse
- Potato variety Tuleyevsky
White wine is made from white grapes. The method of its manufacture is significantly different from the method of making red wine. Only the best technical varieties are used for this purpose.
- "Muscat" - one of the oldest species. Clusters grow up to 400 g. Berries of 3-4 g. Its main quality is a fragrance with hints of carnation, roses, giving the wine a special spice. It is grown exclusively in the southern regions, with a warm climate.
- "Sauvignon Blanc" - famous grape variety, universal type. Ripens in 130-135 days. The sugar content of berries is about 23%. From this grape is made wine with a fruity or herbal aroma. Depending on the time of picking berries, they may differ in taste and aroma - this is the main feature of Sauvignon Blanc.
White grape wine varietiesInteresting! If Sauvignon Blanc is harvested immediately after ripening, it will have herbal notes, and if some time after ripening, the berries will be filled with sweetness and acquire fruit notes.
- "Crystal" - high-yielding variety ripening for 110-115 days. Brushes 170-220 g. Berries 1.5-2.1 g. Used in the production of sherry. Berries withstand cold temperatures up to -29 degrees. Sugar content - 17-18%. This grape is often grown in Georgia, Moldova, in southern Russia. Resistant to gray rot, but may be affected by mildew and oidium. It needs proper care, otherwise the yield will decrease.
- "Chenin Blanc" - The oldest grape variety, which began to be processed in the IX century. Ripens in about 155 days. To date, grown in America, South Africa, but produce wine from this grape mainly in France. The drink, made from Chenin Blanc, has a sour taste and has a floral-honey aftertaste. Productivity to 70 c / hectare.
Also for the manufacture of white wine is often used such varieties as "Muscat Odessa", "Semillon", "Riesling", "Malvasia".
Pink and red wine grapes
The best technical varieties of red and pink grapes are used to create different types of wine.
- "Lydia" - universal variety, ripens in 140-150 days. Bushes develop quickly, flowers are bisexual. Clusters of 150-200 g, loose. Berries within 2 g, scarlet with lilac bloom. Sugar content - 18-20%. The rind is thick, the mucous pulp, the smell of strawberry. The yield of 100-120 c / ha. Withstands cold to -29 degrees.
- "Gurzuf pink" - universal, early grade. Bushes develop quickly, flowers are bisexual. Clusters grow to 250 grams, loose. After full ripening, the berries acquire a dark red color. The flesh with a sugar content of 25-29%, juicy, the skin is dense, which simplifies transportation. The taste is harmonious, muscat aroma. In the berries of 3-4 seeds. The yield of about 150 kg / ha. It tolerates frosts up to -25 degrees.
Pink and red wine grapesInteresting! The best grapes of wine grapes contain many vitamins, extractive and coloring substances, because all of this has a positive effect on the taste and aroma of the drink after preparation.
- "Muscat Pink" - grown exclusively for wine. Ripens in 140 days on average. Bushes of medium vigor, with bisexual flowers. Clusters of 100-205 g, dense. Berries are dark red with 2-4 seeds. Sugar content - 17-24%. Productivity from hectare to 85 centners. Frost resistance of -18 degrees.
- "Diana" ripens closer to the end of September. Bushes grow slowly, flowers are bisexual. The clusters are dense, medium in size. Izabelny taste. Frost resistance to -30 degrees. The yield is moderate. Good immunity to any fungal diseases.
Black wine grapesWe recommend reading our other articles.
- Variety of tomatoes Pink Elephant
- Gooseberry jam
- Gooseberry Variety
- Compound feed for laying hens
Black and purple varieties are often used to create the best types of red wine.
- "Cabernet Sauvignon" used to create one and the best types of red wines with coffee, tobacco or chocolate notes and a taste of prunes. Ripens in 140-160 days. Clusters about 100 g, but there are more. The berries are small, with 1-3 bones. Winter hardiness is high.
Black wine grapes
- "Merlot" - famous and popular type of black grapes. Clusters of 180 g each. In bubki 18% each of sugars. Seeds in berries up to 3 stuff. It is usually used in blending with Cabernet Sauvignon or Cabernet France. The yield per hectare reaches 57 centners, with good care.
- "Shiraz" suitable for making wine, without any additions in other varieties. The aroma contains notes of black pepper, chocolate and tobacco. The bushes are average in height, flowers are bisexual. Clusters are small, friable. Bubki small, black. Productivity is low.
It is impossible not to include such varieties as "Cabernet Franc", "Sangiovese", "Carmener" and of course, "Isabella" in the list of the best technical types of black grapes.
Technical grape varieties for central Russia
Technical grape varieties for the Moscow region should withstand cold weather, drought, and any changes in the weather.
Technical grape varieties for central Russia
- "Anniversary" - grapes for making wine with a delicate taste. Bushes grow rapidly, flowers are bisexual. Clusters are conical for 150-200 g. Berries are dark blue or purple, an average of 2 g. Frost-resistance is about -23 degrees. Productivity is high.
- "Pineapple" - used to make wine with strawberry flavor. Ripens in 115-120 days. Bunches about 200 g, pointed to the tip or rounded, friable. Bubki 2-3 g, round, amber color. Sugar content reaches 34%! Resistance to frost down to -27 degrees.
- "Fortune" - grape variety with nutmeg taste and smell. Maturation takes 130-135 days. Sugar content is about 17%. Brushes in the form of a cone, grow to 500 g. Bubki black, oval, 3.5 g on average. The yield per hectare is not less than 200 kg.
Wine grapes are used to make wine all over the world. The best varieties are used to create the most famous, expensive brands. The final taste of the wine and its aroma depend on the characteristics of growing such a grape, the climatic zone, as well as many other nuances. So, when cultivating these varieties, it is necessary to take into account all the moments of cultivation and care, and adjust them as necessary to obtain high-quality raw materials for wine.