Flour, its species and varieties


Flour is a product obtained by grinding the grain into a powdered mass. It is of different types, varieties, classes. Make flour from the most various crops. Each specific type of flour has its own technical features and purpose.

Milling flour types

Any type of flour, regardless of what agricultural product was used for the production, is done by a certain method. There are three types of flour grinding.

  • Fine grinding - flour, which is made from grains, pre-cleaned of all the shells. This type of flour is most often used in cooking. It is suitable for making delicious, homemade bread, sweet and rich pastries, different types of pasta, etc.

Wheat flour

Interesting! Flour is the only product in the world that people of all races, cultures and religions use!
  • Middle grinding is obtained from the grain that has a shell. This product is much more useful for the body, but it is usually not used in cooking, because it is difficult to work with this flour and even more so to make delicious pastries or pasta!
  • Coarse grinding - such flour is called wallpaper or wholegrain. It contains all those components that has a simple grain. For the body, it is most recommended, it has many nutrients, vitamins, minerals. Outwardly, it resembles pounded, whole grain.

Types of flour

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Rye flour

On sale there is a huge amount of various types of flour.

  • Wheat - the most sought-after species. The sale of 1, 2, the highest grade of this product, as well as krupchatka and wallpaper variety. It is used for a wide variety of baking, pasta making.
  • Rye flour is also quite popular. Especially in great demand in ancient times.
  • Corn - was invented after the discovery of America. It is suitable for baking casseroles, porridge, pies and similar dishes.
  • Rice flour is the most sought after species in East Asia. There, it is as popular as the wheat variety in Europe. It has a high nutritional value. Suitable for making sweet dishes, breading.
Interesting! White rice flour is usually mixed with other types of flour, before use, because it has a neutral taste and is not very healthy in itself. But brown rice flour is considered useful, but it cannot be stored for a long time!

Corn flour

  • Buckwheat is a well-known dietary type of flour that can be used to make infant formula. Distributed in East Asia. It may have a persistent smell of buckwheat. To get rid of the smell, you can mix the product with other types of flour.
  • Oatmeal is used mainly in cooking. It is popular, like buckwheat in the diet and baby food.
  • Flax flour is for the most part medicinal, not a culinary product. It is extremely beneficial to health, but is expensive.
  • Pumpkin flour is a dietary product. Suitable for the preparation of different types of sweet and salty pastries.

Also, the flour is almond, amaranth, peanut, cherry, sesame, cedar, hemp. It is made from wheat germ and milk thistle.

The composition and properties of flour

Rice flour

Properties and composition of different types of flour vary greatly. So, for example, the composition of the corn product and rye will be completely different. The same can be said about the properties. Below are the criteria by which the flour is evaluated.

  • Color, smell, taste. These indicators are very important and very different in different types of flour and grinding. For example, rice flour is always white, almost tasteless, but corn flour is yellow and tastes more pleasant. As for the wheat species, it can be both light and dark.
  • Humidity, zonality are important indicators. Humidity should not be more than 15%, otherwise the product will be poorly stored.
  • Type of grinding, the presence of impurities (seed shells and other similar components).
  • Composition - quality, quantity of gluten, gas-forming and gas-holding components.
Interesting! It is believed that the darker the flour, the greater the benefit. However, this rule applies only to plain, wheat flour, for example, buckwheat flour itself is dark, and rice flour simply cannot be dark!

Buckwheat flour

  • Acidity.
  • Harmful impurities, the presence of pests. In this case, you should always take into account the permissible limits established by GOST.
  • The presence or absence of sound when chewing.
  • Class, flour grade - are established when studying all of the above indicators.

If the flour does not pass the control on those or other items, it is not sold and is not used in the food industry.

Classes and grades of flour

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There are five main classes of flour. For example, wheat type can consider the features of these classes and varieties.

  • Top grade flour includes the inner layer, wheat endosperm. Particles - 30-40 microns. The color is white. The amount of starch - 79-80%, a little protein - up to 14%. Production of raw gluten - 28%, ash content up to 0.55%. Fiber in the composition of the minimum (0.1-0.15%), as well as fat, sugar. This type of flour is suitable for pastry, it has excellent qualities. The final products are voluminous and porous. Used in the manufacture of yeast, puff or shortbread dough.

    Oat flour

  • Krupchatka is a product of uniform grains of a light cream color. Ash content - 0.60%. There is practically no bran in it. This class is rich in gluten, recommended for baking bread. It is made from certain varieties of wheat and the particles in it are larger than in the case of top grade. Suitable for yeast dough with plenty of sugar and fat. Products as a result have low porosity and quickly harden.
  • Flour of the 1st grade - the most demanded class. Particles of 40-60 microns. They have an endosperm and up to 4% crushed seed shells. Starch - 75%, protein - 14%, raw gluten - 30%. In this flour, up to 2% of sugars and 1% of fat, fiber - up to 0.3%. The product is white color, may be yellow or gray reflux. Recommended for pastry, bread. Ready-made pastries get stale not quickly.
  • Grade 2 contains particles of the grain itself and up to 10% of pounded seed shells. Particles range from 30 to 200 microns. In this product, up to 72% starch, 15% protein. Crude gluten from 25%, sugars about 2%, fat as much, ash content - 1.2%, fiber - 0.7%. The color is light with a yellowish sheen and darker, even brown. It is recommended for baking bread. They turn out volume with porous pulp.
  • Wallpaper flour is made of the same substances as wheat grains, but it has fewer shells. Particles can reach up to 600 microns. Ash content - 0.1%, fiber - 0.2%, the yield of gluten - 20%. It is recommended for baking table bread.

Flax flour

Interesting! For grinding seeds in flour, in ancient Egypt used large stones.

In addition, you need to know that the flour is different and in purpose. For example, the wheat variety is divided into three large groups.

  • Bakery - suitable for making bread. It is produced from soft varieties.
  • Pasta - a product for making pasta. For its manufacture take solid varieties.
  • Confectionery - flour, which is recommended for the manufacture of sweet and salty confectionery products, from cakes to muffins.

The benefits and harm of flour

The benefits and harms of flour depend on how much to eat. Snow-white (wheat) flour is the most useless product for health, in white it is a lot of carbohydrates. That is why nutritionists recommend to use mainly those products that are made from the second grade or whole-grain type of flour.

Pumpkin flour

As for other types of flour, the most useful are: flax, pumpkin, oat and buckwheat. For therapeutic purposes, they also use flour, thistle, peanut, bird cherry, sesame. And yet, even these species can harm, if you eat them too much. So it is necessary to adhere to the norms and problems with health or appearance, when eating flour will not.

How to store flour

To flour did not spoil for a long time, you need to be able to properly store it. To do this, use dry rooms with low temperatures and improved ventilation. Shelf life is about six months, but depending on the type of product it may differ.

Interesting! Whole grain flour is best stored in a refrigerator or a cool cellar.

It is not recommended to store flour in a paper bag as it is sold. It is better to pour it into a container for bulk products. This will avoid the appearance of beetles or different odors. If the flour has changed color, contains bugs or a strange, unpleasant smell, then it should not be used!